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Prostate. 2009 Mar 1;69(4):411-8. doi: 10.1002/pros.20902.

Identification of extracellular delta-catenin accumulation for prostate cancer detection.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858, USA. luq@ecu.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and early detection is essential to reduce mortality and increase survival. delta-Catenin is a unique beta-catenin superfamily protein primarily expressed in the brain but is upregulated in human prostatic adenocarcinomas. Despite its close correlation with the disease, it is unclear whether delta-catenin presents the potential in prostate cancer screening because it is an intracellular protein. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis of delta-catenin accumulation in the urine of prostate cancer patients and its potential pathways of excretion into extracellular milieu.

METHODS:

Prostate cancer cell cultures, human tissue biopsies, and voided urines were characterized to determine extracellular delta-catenin accumulation and co-isolation with exosomes/prostasomes.

RESULTS:

We identified delta-catenin in culture media and in the stroma of human prostate cancer tissues. In PC-3 cells in culture, delta-catenin was partially co-localized and co-isolated with raft-associated membrane protein caveolin-1 and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein CD59, suggesting its potential excretion into extracellular milieu through exosome/prostasome associated pathways. Interference with endocytic pathway using wortmannin did not block prostasome excretion, but delta-catenin overexpression promoted the extracellular accumulation of caveolin-1. delta-Catenin, caveolin-1, and CD59 were all detected in cell-free human voided urine prostasomes. delta-Catenin immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the urine of prostate cancer patients (P < 0.0005).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrated, for the first time, the extracellular accumulation of delta-catenin in urine supporting its potential utility for non-invasive prostate cancer detection.

PMID:
19116988
PMCID:
PMC2633034
DOI:
10.1002/pros.20902
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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