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High Alt Med Biol. 2008 Winter;9(4):319-25. doi: 10.1089/ham.2008.1026.

Changes in pupil dynamics at high altitude--an observational study using a handheld pupillometer.

Author information

1
London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, The Helipad, The Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London, UK. mark@rcsed.ac.uk

Abstract

Gross pupil dynamics are used as an indirect measure of brain function. Changes in hypoxia and intracranial pressure are thought to alter pupil responses to light. This study assessed a portable handheld pupil measuring device (pupillometer) in the field investigating the changes in pupil size, speed of reaction, and rate of constriction/dilatation with hypoxia induced by changes in altitude. A correlation between pupil dynamics and acute mountain sickness was sought. Seventeen volunteers were studied following acute exposure to 3450 m and then during a trek to 4770 m in Ladakh, India. The pupillometer was used to record maximum and minimum pupil diameter in response to a standard light source with calculation of latency, constriction and dilatation velocities. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) was recorded using Lake Louise self completed questionnaires both in the morning and afternoon on each day. Acute altitude exposure resulted in a significant reduction of percentage change in pupil size (36.5% to 24.1% p=<0.001), significant delay in pupillary contraction (latency; 0.208 to 0.223 seconds p=0.015) and a significant slowing of the rate of contraction (constriction velocity; -2.77 mm/s to -1.75 mm/s p=0.012). These changes reverted to normal during a period of acclimatization. A significant diurnal variation in pupil size was also observed. There was no significant difference between subjects with and without AMS. The handheld pupillometer is a suitable robust tool for monitoring changes in pupil dynamics in the field. With acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia associated with an ascent to a moderate altitude, there is a general slowing of pupil function which reverts to normal within a few days of acclimatization. There appears to be a marked diurnal variation in pupil size. The measurements clearly demonstrated an effect of hypoxia on cerebral function, but these changes did not relate to moderate AMS.

PMID:
19115917
DOI:
10.1089/ham.2008.1026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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