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Cell Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):47-57. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.324.

Ski and SnoN, potent negative regulators of TGF-beta signaling.

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UC Berkeley, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 16 Barker Hall, MC3204, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


Ski and the closely related SnoN were discovered as oncogenes by their ability to transform chicken embryo fibroblasts upon overexpression. While elevated expressions of Ski and SnoN have also been reported in many human cancer cells and tissues, consistent with their pro-oncogenic activity, emerging evidence also suggests a potential anti-oncogenic activity for both. In addition, Ski and SnoN have been implicated in regulation of cell differentiation, especially in the muscle and neuronal lineages. Multiple cellular partners of Ski and SnoN have been identified in an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex roles of Ski and SnoN. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the biological functions of Ski and SnoN, their mechanisms of action and how their levels of expression are regulated.

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