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Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2009 Feb;13(1):21-44. doi: 10.1177/1088868308326909. Epub 2008 Dec 29.

A new look at emotional intelligence: a dual-process framework.

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Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7137, USA.


In this article, the author provides a framework to guide research in emotional intelligence. Studies conducted up to the present bear on a conception of emotional intelligence as pertaining to the domain of consciousness and investigate the construct with a correlational approach. As an alternative, the author explores processes underlying emotional intelligence, introducing the distinction between conscious and automatic processing as a potential source of variability in emotionally intelligent behavior. Empirical literature is reviewed to support the central hypothesis that individual differences in emotional intelligence may be best understood by considering the way individuals automatically process emotional stimuli. Providing directions for research, the author encourages the integration of experimental investigation of processes underlying emotional intelligence with correlational analysis of individual differences and fosters the exploration of the automaticity component of emotional intelligence.

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