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Accid Anal Prev. 2009 Jan;41(1):137-45. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.10.001. Epub 2008 Nov 4.

An area-level model of vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions with implications for land use and transportation planning.

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San Francisco Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Section, Program on Health, Equity and Sustainability, 1390 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94102, USA.


There is growing awareness among urban planning, public health, and transportation professionals that design decisions and investments that promote walking can be beneficial for human and ecological health. Planners need practical tools to consider the impact of development on pedestrian safety, a key requirement for the promotion of walking. Simple bivariate models have been used to predict changes in vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions based on changes in traffic volume. We describe the development of a multivariate, area-level regression model of vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions based on environmental and population data in 176 San Francisco, California census tracts. Predictor variables examined included street, land use, and population characteristics, including commute behaviors. The final model explained approximately 72% of the systematic variation in census-tract vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions and included measures of traffic volume, arterial streets without transit, land area, proportion of land area zoned for neighborhood commercial and residential-neighborhood commercial uses, employee and resident populations, proportion of people living in poverty and proportion aged 65 and older. We have begun to apply this model to predict area-level change in vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions associated with land use development and transportation planning decisions.

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