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J Bone Miner Res. 2009 May;24(5):908-24. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.081245.

Genome-wide analysis of genes related to kidney stone formation and elimination in the calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis model mouse: detection of stone-preventive factors and involvement of macrophage activity.

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Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.


We previously established a mouse kidney stone formation model and showed that mice have a higher tolerance to stone formation than rats. Furthermore, we showed that the generated calcium oxalate crystal deposits could be eliminated after several days. This study investigated the transcriptome of stone formation and elimination in the mouse kidney based on gene selection using a microarray technique. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were administered 80 mg/kg glyoxylate for 15 days, and kidney calcium oxalate crystal depositions had increased by day 6; thereafter, depositions decreased gradually and had almost disappeared by day 15. On microarray analysis, mRNA expression in the crystal-formed kidneys showed the significant expression of 18,064 genes. Thirty-one, 21, and 25 genes showed at least a 2-fold increased expression during the experimental course (days 3-15), stone formation phase-specific (days 3-6), and stone elimination phase-specific (days 9-15) stages, respectively. Among these genes, those related to chemotaxis and monocyte/macrophage activation were identified. Gene ontology analysis to identify overexpressed genes highlighted categories related to inflammation, immune reactions and the complement activation pathway. Quantitative PCR of 17 previously reported stone-related genes with a significant expression on microarray analysis showed significantly increased chemokines, stone matrix proteins, and their receptors; the significant decrease of several types of transporters and superoxide dismutase; and the persistently high expression of Tamm-Horsfall protein throughout the experiment. In conclusion, inflammation and immune reactivity through macrophage migration are involved in stone formation and elimination in mouse kidneys.

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