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Behav Brain Res. 2009 Mar 17;198(2):440-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.11.046. Epub 2008 Dec 6.

Behavioral effects of systemic transforming growth factor-alpha in Syrian hamsters.

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Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, United States.


The growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is strongly expressed in the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). TGF-alpha is one of several SCN peptides recently suggested to function as a circadian output signal for the regulation of locomotor activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. When infused in the brain, TGF-alpha suppresses activity. TGF-alpha suppresses other behaviors as well including feeding, resulting in weight loss. Elevated TGF-alpha is correlated with some cancers, and it is possible the TGF-alpha and its receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mediate fatigue and weight loss associated with cancer. If true for cancers outside of the brain, then systemic TGF-alpha should also affect behavior. We tested this hypothesis in hamsters with intraperitoneal injections or week-long subcutaneous infusions of TGF-alpha. Both treatments suppressed activity and infusions caused reduced food consumption and weight loss. To identify areas of the brain that might mediate these effects of systemic TGF-alpha, we used immunohistochemistry to localize cells with an activated MAP kinase signaling pathway (phosphorylated ERK1). Cells were activated in two hypothalamic areas, the paraventricular nucleus and a narrow region surrounding the third ventricle. These sites could not only be targets of TGF-alpha produced in the SCN but could also mediate effects of elevated TGF-alpha from tumors both within and outside the central nervous system.

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