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J Immunol. 2009 Jan 1;182(1):489-97.

Toxoplasma gondii prevents chromatin remodeling initiated by TLR-triggered macrophage activation.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Abstract

Macrophages infected with the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii are unable to up-regulate many proinflammatory cytokine genes, including TNF (TNF-alpha), upon stimulation with LPS and other TLR ligands. In this study, we examined the influence of T. gondii on transcription factors associated with TNF-alpha transcription, as well as phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 at distal and proximal regions of the TNF-alpha promoter. During LPS stimulation, we found that Toxoplasma blocks nuclear accumulation of transcription factor c-Jun, but not that of cAMP response element-binding protein or NF-kappaB. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that binding of all of these transcription factors to the TNF promoter was decreased by T. gondii infection. Furthermore, the parasite blocked LPS-induced Ser(10) phosphorylation and Lys(9)/Lys(14) acetylation of histone H3 molecules associated with distal and proximal regions of the TNF-alpha promoter. Our results show that Toxoplasma inhibits TNF-alpha transcription by interfering with chromatin remodeling events required for transcriptional activation at the TNF promoter, revealing a new mechanism by which a eukaryotic pathogen incapacitates proinflammatory cytokine production during infection.

PMID:
19109180
PMCID:
PMC2651083
DOI:
10.4049/jimmunol.182.1.489
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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