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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Mar;53(3):1194-203. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00984-08. Epub 2008 Dec 22.

Preclinical evaluation of GS-9160, a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase.

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Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California 94404, USA.


GS-9160 is a novel and potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) that specifically targets the process of strand transfer. It is an authentic inhibitor of HIV-1 integration, since treatment of infected cells results in an elevation of two-long terminal repeat circles and a decrease of integration junctions. GS-9160 has potent and selective antiviral activity in primary human T lymphocytes producing a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of approximately 2 nM, with a selectivity index (50% cytotoxic concentration/EC(50)) of approximately 2,000. The antiviral potency of GS-9160 decreased by 6- to 10-fold in the presence of human serum. The antiviral activity of GS-9160 is synergistic in combination with representatives from three different classes of antiviral drugs, namely HIV-1 protease inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Viral resistance selections performed with GS-9160 yielded a novel pattern of mutations within the catalytic core domain of IN; E92V emerged initially, followed by L74M. While E92V as a single mutant conferred 12-fold resistance against GS-9160, L74M had no effect as a single mutant. Together, these mutations conferred 67-fold resistance to GS-9160, indicating that L74M may potentiate the resistance caused by E92V. The pharmacokinetic profile of GS-9160 in healthy human volunteers revealed that once-daily dosing was not likely to achieve antiviral efficacy; hence, the clinical development of this compound was discontinued.

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