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Cancer Treat Rev. 2009 May;35(3):272-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2008.11.003. Epub 2008 Dec 21.

Detection of circulating tumor cells in bladder cancer patients.

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Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, Goudi 115 27, Athens, Greece.


The methods employed for the detection of circulating bladder cancer cells (CBCs) and their use as a molecular staging tool in clinical settings are thoroughly reviewed. CBC isolation and enrichment methods are discussed according to their advantages and pitfalls along with the clinical data of PCR-based techniques used for CBC detection. In addition, we review the specificity of molecular markers that have been proposed so far for CBC identification, and we comment on the controversial clinical data, proposing laboratory approaches which may improve the clinical significance of CBC detection in bladder cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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