Send to

Choose Destination
Appetite. 2009 Apr;52(2):388-95. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2008.11.014. Epub 2008 Dec 3.

Effects of complete whey-protein breakfasts versus whey without GMP-breakfasts on energy intake and satiety.

Author information

Dept. of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.



To compare the effects of whey versus whey without glycomacropeptide (GMP) in a high and a normal amount of protein in a breakfast custard on satiety and energy intake (EI), taking concentrations of amino acids (AA), glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin into account.


Twenty-five healthy subjects (mean+/-S.E.M., BMI: 23.9+/-0.3 kg/m(2); age: 22+/-1 years) received a breakfast containing whey or whey without GMP as protein type with 10/55/35 or 25/55/20 En% protein/carbohydrate/fat in a randomized, single-blind design. Appetite profile (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin and AA concentrations were measured, and the adequate moment for ad libitum lunch was determined based on differences in ghrelin concentration. In a second set of experiments subjects received the same breakfasts; ad libitum lunch was offered at the pre-determined moment.


After a breakfast with 25 En% protein increases in insulin and GLP-1 and decreases in ghrelin concentrations were larger; increases in satiety ratings were lower than after 10 En% (p<0.05); there was a treatment x time interaction effect on glucose and insulin concentrations (p<0.001). After a breakfast with whey without GMP insulin concentrations were increased more than after whey (p<0.05). EI at lunch was lower after whey than after whey without GMP (2877+/-165 kJ versus 3208+/-178 kJ, p<0.05), coinciding with more increased concentrations of serine, threonine, alanine, alpha-aminobutyric acid and isoleucine (p<0.05).


GMP as a whey-fraction reduced energy intake coinciding with increased concentrations of certain amino acids, irrespective of the concentration of whey-protein. Although between different concentrations of whey-protein differences in hormone responses were observed, these were unrelated to satiety ratings or energy intake.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center