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Ann Thorac Surg. 2009 Jan;87(1):276-83. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.08.017.

Transapical aortic valve implantation: step by step.

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Universität Leipzig, Herzzentrum, Klinik für Herzchirurgie, Leipzig, Germany.



Transapical aortic valve implantation is a new minimally invasive technique for beating heart, off-pump, aortic valve implantation in high-risk patients.


The procedure involves antegrade aortic valve implantation using an oversizing technique with direct access and accurate positioning of a stent-based transcatheter xenograft. Procedural steps include placement of femoral arterial and venous access wires, anterolateral mini-thoracotomy, epicardial pacing, and apical pursestring suture placement. Valve positioning is performed under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance during rapid ventricular pacing.


Patient screening, especially regarding native aortic annulus diameter and pattern of calcification, is essential for success. Since imaging is crucial, implantations are optimally performed in a hybrid operative theater by an experienced team of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, and anesthetists.


The aim of this article is to outline the technical aspects of the new technique of minimally invasive transapical aortic valve implantation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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