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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Feb;83(2):149-56. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2008.11.010. Epub 2008 Dec 18.

Type 1 diabetes, the A1 milk hypothesis and vitamin D deficiency.

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Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.


The 'A1' genetic variant of beta-casein in milk has been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The keystone piece of supporting evidence is an ecological study positively correlating the incidence of T1D with amount of A1 beta-casein consumption per capita. Of relevance, A1 beta-casein consumption is also positively correlated with latitude, itself implicated in T1D through vitamin D deficiency. Ecological and biological evidence convincingly implicate vitamin D deficiency in T1D. Latitude is a confounder of the ecological data that underpin the hypothesis that A1 beta-casein in cow's milk is a causative factor in T1D.

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