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J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009 Dec;19(6):1064-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2008.11.001. Epub 2008 Dec 18.

EMG activity of hip and trunk muscles during deep-water running.

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Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus, 5322 Endo, Fijisawa-city, Kanagawa 252-8520, Japan.


The present study used synchronized motion analysis to investigate the activity of hip and trunk muscles during deep-water running (DWR) relative to land walking (LW) and water walking (WW). Nine healthy men performed each exercise at self-determined slow, moderate, and fast paces, and surface electromyography was used to investigate activity of the adductor longus, gluteus maxima, gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, oblique externus abdominis, and erector spinae. The following kinematic parameters were calculated: the duration of one cycle, range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint, and absolute angles of the pelvis and trunk with respect to the vertical axis in the sagittal plane. The percentages of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) of each muscle were higher during DWR than during LW and WW. The %MVC of the erector spinae during WW increased concomitant with the pace increment. The hip joint ROMs were larger in DWR than in LW and WW. Forward inclinations of the trunk were apparent for DWR and fast-paced WW. The pelvis was inclined forward in DWR and WW. In conclusion, the higher-level activities during DWR are affected by greater hip joint motion and body inclinations with an unstable floating situation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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