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Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009 Mar;164(1):32-44. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2008.11.005. Epub 2008 Nov 27.

Proteomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni proteins released during in vitro miracidium-to-sporocyst transformation.

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1
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, United States.

Abstract

Free-living miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni, upon penetration of the their snail intermediate host, undergo dramatic morphological and physiological changes as they transform to the parasitic sporocyst stage. During this transformation process, developing larvae release a diverse array of proteins, herein referred to as larval transformation proteins (LTPs), some of which are postulated to serve a parasite protective function. In the present study, nanoLC-tandem MS analysis was performed on all proteins represented in entire 1-dimensional SDS-PAGE-separated samples in order to gain a more comprehensive picture of the protein constituents associated with miracidium-to-sporocyst transformation and thus, their potential role in influencing establishment of intramolluscan infections. Of 127 proteins with sufficient peptide/sequence information, specific identifications were made for 99, while 28 represented unknown or hypothetical proteins. Nineteen percent of identified proteins possessed signal peptides constituting a cohort of classical secretory proteins, while 22% were identified as putative nonclassically secreted leaderless proteins based on SecretomeP analysis. Proteins comprising these groups consisted mainly of proteases/protease inhibitors, small HSPs, redox/antioxidant enzymes, ion-binding proteins including those with anti-oxidant Fe-binding activities (ferritins, heme-binding protein), and venom allergen-like (VAL) proteins. A polyclonal antibody generated against whole LTPs recognized proteins primarily associated with the cilia, ciliated epidermal plates and intercellular ridges of miracidia and the tegument of fully transformed sporocysts, identifying these structures as sources of a subset of LTPs. Thus lysis of plates and/or leakage during formation of the sporocyst syncytium likely represent significant contributors to the overall LTP makeup, especially identified nonsecretory proteins. However, as plate release/degradation and tegument formation are part of the normal developmental process, all LTPs regardless of tissue origin, would be expected at the parasite-host interface upon infection. This study significantly expands the repertoire of LTPs associated with larval transformation and identifies several, e.g., those involved in stress responses, proteolysis/inhibition, antioxidant and detoxication, and immune modulation, that may play a parasite protective role during this crucial period of transition.

PMID:
19095013
PMCID:
PMC2665799
DOI:
10.1016/j.molbiopara.2008.11.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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