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Retina. 2009 Mar;29(3):340-8. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e31819241d0.

Classification of full-thickness traumatic macular holes by optical coherence tomography.

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State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.



To describe morphologic features of traumatic macular holes on optical coherence tomography and to correlate them with clinical findings.


Seventy-three consecutive patients diagnosed with full-thickness traumatic macular holes involving the fovea underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation followed by horizontal and vertical line scans using the Stratus optical coherence tomography. Retinal thickness at the edges of the holes, apical and basal diameters, and various clinical parameters were recorded. The approximate apical and basal areas and eccentricities of the holes were calculated. Morphologic parameters were correlated with clinical findings.


On the basis of optical coherence tomography findings, traumatic macular holes were classified into five morphologic types with varying average retinal thicknesses, apical areas, and basal areas. Patients who presented >90 days after injury had greater average retinal thickness (P = 0.03) and apex areas (P = 0.002) compared with those who presented within 90 days. Older patients developed more circular holes, i.e., less eccentricity of the apex (P = 0.04) and base (P = 0.01). Interestingly, none of the morphologic parameters investigated in the current study correlated with visual acuity. Patients who presented later in the clinical course or who had greater average retinal thicknesses tended to have better vision (P = 0.11 and P = 0.07, respectively).


Optical coherence tomography evaluation may yield important insights into the pathogenesis and clinical findings of traumatic macular holes.

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