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J Travel Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):454-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8305.2008.00245.x.

Frequent international travel by men who have sex with men recently diagnosed with HIV-1: potential for transmission of primary HIV-1 drug resistance.

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Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, 50 Beale Street, Suite 1300, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA.


We assessed the potential for international transmission of primary drug resistance among men who have sex with men newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (n = 64) during the period in which they were unaware of their infection. During their exposure period, 55% of participants lived or traveled outside of the United States, and 59% had foreign-born sexual partners. Eighteen participants (28%) were classified as recently infected with HIV. Primary HIV-1 drug resistance was detected in eight participants (13%), four of whom were recently infected. Given the high frequency of international travel and prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance among study participants, prevention strategies should incorporate specific counseling on risk of cross-border transmission.

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