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Med Teach. 2009 Jan;31(1):e18-23. doi: 10.1080/01421590802337104.

Evaluating training for a simulated team in complex whole procedure simulations in the endovascular suite.

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Imperial College, London, UK.



Simulators supporting the development of technical skills for complex procedures are gaining prominence. Safe performance of complex procedures requires effective team interactions. Our research group creates 'whole' procedure simulations to produce the psychological fidelity of clinical settings. Recruitment of real interventional team (IT) members has proved challenging. Actors as a simulated team are expensive. We hypothesised that medical students and trainees in a vascular unit could authentically portray members of the endovascular suite for carotid stenting.


This paper describes the evaluation of a training programme for a simulated IT. Participants rated the extent to which programmes objectives were met and realism of simulations. Researchers' field notes provided insight into strengths and weaknesses of the programme.


Seven members from the vascular unit undertook training. Learning objectives were largely met. Nineteen simulations with 13 interventionalists were performed. Realism levels were at least moderate. Simulated IT members reported increased understanding of teamwork and roles in the endovascular suite.


A simulated IT proved feasible. Authentic psychological fidelity complemented the physical fidelity of the simulated suite. Although there were areas for development in training, this approach might contribute considerably to interventionalist training and increase knowledge and skills of vascular trainees and medical students.

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