Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Hepatology. 2009 Feb;49(2):504-12. doi: 10.1002/hep.22675.

Human inhibitor of growth 1 inhibits hepatoma cell growth and influences p53 stability in a variant-dependent manner.

Author information

Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.


Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell function by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Recently, three ING1 splice variants have been cloned, but their roles in apoptosis and p53 regulation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been fully elucidated. The present study found that ING1, in a variant-dependent manner, inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and colony formation, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase, and postponed tumor formation in nude mice. Expression of p33(ING1b) and p24(ING1c) variants, but not p47(ING1a), was markedly reduced in HCC samples. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis revealed that ectopic overexpression of p33(ING1b) or p24(ING1c) variant increased the expression of p53 downstream genes such as p21(waf1) and bax, and repressed bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01), whereas p47(ING1a) inactivated p21(waf1) promoter (P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found that p33(ING1b) and p24(ING1c) repressed Mdm2 expression (P < 0.01) and competed with Mdm2 for binding to p53. Interestingly, p33(ING1b)and p24(ING1c) did not directly bind to Mdm2 protein but strongly increased p14(arf) expression (P < 0.01) and interacted with p14(arf) protein to stimulate p53. Moreover, we found that ectopic overexpression of p33(ING1b) or p24(ING1c) significantly induced p53 protein acetylation at Lys-373/Lys-382 residue, but did not alter the phosphorylation status of p53.


ING1 variants p33(ING1b) and p24(ING1c) may modulate p53 activity and subsequently inhibit hepatoma cell growth by at least two possible mechanisms: interacting with Mdm2 and p14(arf) to stabilize and activate p53, or increasing p53 acetylation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center