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Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Jul;54(7):1386-402. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0520-7. Epub 2008 Dec 17.

Avoiding pitfalls: what an endoscopist should know in liver transplantation--part II.

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Nazih Zuhdi Transplant Institute, 3300 North West Expressway, Oklahoma City, OK 73112, USA.


Over the last decade the number of patients undergoing transplantation has increased. At the same time, effective peri- and postoperative care and better surgical techniques have resulted in greater numbers of recipients achieving long-term survival. Identification and effective management in the form of adequate treatment is essential, since any delay in diagnosis or treatment may result in graft loss or serious threat to patient's life. Various aspects of endoscopic findings that can be commonly encountered among liver transplant recipients are discussed herein. Topics include: persistent and/or recurrent esophageal varices, reflux, Candida or cytomegalovirus (CMV) esophagitis, esophageal neoplasms, posttransplant peptic ulcer, biliary complications, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), Kaposi's sarcoma, CMV colitis and inflammatory bowel disease, colonic neoplasms, Clostridium difficile infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD).

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