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Nutr Res. 2008 Dec;28(12):879-91. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.08.001.

Mangiferin and hesperidin metabolites are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs after oral ingestion of a Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush tea) extract.

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Institute for Food Toxicology and Chemical Analytics, Center of Food Science, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, D-30173 Hannover, Germany.


Health-promoting properties such as antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, and cholesterol-lowering effects are described for mangiferin and hesperidin, the major phenolic compounds present in Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush). However, knowledge of their metabolic fate and their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is very limited. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mangiferin, hesperidin, and their metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces samples from pigs consuming an extract of Cyclopia genistoides. Pigs were administered up to 74 mg mangiferin per kilogram of body weight and 1 mg hesperidin per kilogram of body weight per day for 11 days. Plasma samples were collected at various time points on days 9 and 11 of the study and days 1 and 2 after termination of extract administration. Urine and feces were collected in fractions for 24 hours. In the plasma samples, the aglycone of mangiferin (norathyriol) was detected. Mean plasma concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 11.8 mumol/L. Six metabolites of mangiferin and hesperidin were detected in the urine, including methyl mangiferin, norathyriol, its monoglucuronide, hesperetin, hesperetin monoglucuronide, and eriodictyol monoglucuronide. Between 26.0% and 30.8% of the administered dose of hesperidin and only between 1.4% and 1.6% of mangiferin could be detected in the urine on days 9 and 11 of the study. Approximately 8.2% of the administered dose of mangiferin was determined in the feces. The main metabolite was norathyriol. Neither hesperidin nor metabolites ascribed to hesperidin intake were detected. The results suggest that formation of norathyriol from mangiferin occurs in vivo, and specific metabolites were identified in blood and excretion products in urine and feces. This study will aid in investigating the physiological functions of the parent compounds in vivo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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