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J Vet Cardiol. 2005 Nov;7(2):131-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jvc.2005.09.007. Epub 2005 Nov 14.

Ladder diagrams for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation.

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1
Section of Cardiology, Small Animal Hospital, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK.

Abstract

Ladder diagrams are valuable teaching and interpretive tools in both human and veterinary electrocardiography. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how ladder diagrams can be used to help understand the possible mechanisms underlying atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation.

PMID:
19083328
DOI:
10.1016/j.jvc.2005.09.007
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