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Expert Opin Med Diagn. 2008 Apr;2(4):387-398.

Emerging urinary biomarkers in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

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University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Nephrology and Hypertension, MLC 7022, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.



Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a common and devastating problem in clinical medicine. The lack of early biomarkers for AKI has led to a delay in initiating potentially effective therapies.


Identification of novel urinary biomarkers for AKI that have progressed to the clinical phase of the biomarker discovery process.


A literature review (PubMed, MedLine) from 2000 to the present. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS;: The most promising AKI biomarkers include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 and liver-type fatty acid binding protein. Studies to validate the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarkers in clinical samples from large cohorts and from multiple clinical situations are in progress, facilitated by the development of commercial tools for their measurement.

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