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Mucosal Immunol. 2008 Sep;1(5):389-98. doi: 10.1038/mi.2008.30. Epub 2008 Jul 2.

Generation of specific effector and memory T cells with gut- and secondary lymphoid tissue- homing potential by oral attenuated CVD 909 typhoid vaccine in humans.

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Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


Induction of effective memory T cells is likely to be critical to the level and duration of protection elicited by novel live oral typhoid vaccines. Using cells from volunteers who ingested Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 909, we characterized the induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting central (T(CM), CD45RO(+)CD62L(+)) and effector (T(EM), CD45RO(+)CD62L(-)) memory T populations, and their gut-homing potential based on integrin alpha4/beta7 expression. Both CD4(+) T(EM) and T(CM) populations secreted IFN-gamma. However, although CD4(+) T(EM) expressed, or not, integrin alpha(4)/beta(7), CD4(+) T(CM) cells were predominantly integrin alpha(4)/beta(7)(+). In contrast, IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) cells were predominantly classical T(EM) and CD45RA(+) T(EM) (T(EMRA), CD45RO(-)CD62L(-)) subsets. However, although CD8(+) T(EM) expressed, or not, integrin alpha(4)/beta(7), CD8(+) T(EMRA) were predominantly integrin alpha(4)/beta(7)(+). This is the first demonstration that oral immunization of humans with S. Typhi elicits diverse IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T(CM) and T(EM) subsets able to migrate to the gut and other lymphoid tissues.

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