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Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009 Feb;18(1):62-8. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32830c8d44.

Alcohol, coffee, and bladder cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies.

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Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy.


The objective was to review epidemiological studies that evaluated the association between consumption of coffee and alcohol and urinary bladder cancer. We searched the Medline database for observational studies of bladder neoplasms that included information on coffee or alcohol drinking, and looked for papers quoted as references in reviews of risk factors for bladder cancer and in studies that had been selected for inclusion. Results from epidemiological studies allow excluding a strong association between coffee and bladder cancer. Several studies reported a moderate increase in risk in coffee drinkers as compared with nondrinkers, but no trend with dose has been established. Epidemiological data on alcohol drinking and bladder cancer are suggestive of no association, although findings were not always consistent. For both habits, an explanation of the moderate increase in risk observed in some investigations might be attributed to residual confounding by smoking, or to an association between alcohol, coffee, and yet unidentified risk factors for bladder cancer.

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