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Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009 Feb;48(2):140-3. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken426. Epub 2008 Dec 11.

Patient-reported outcomes in primary Sjogren's syndrome: comparison of the long and short versions of the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort--Sicca Symptoms Inventory.

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Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (Selly Oak), Raddlebarn Road, Birmingham B296JD, UK.



The long-form 64-item Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort--Sicca Symptoms Inventory (PROFAD-SSI) questionnaire was developed as a patient-reported assessment tool for use in primary SS (PSS) and other rheumatic disorders. In this study, we assess whether the (shorter and more practical) 19-item PROFAD-SSI-SF (short form) gives similar results and whether a still briefer version using visual analogue scales (VASs) is feasible.


Questionnaire surveys comprising the long and short versions of the PROFAD-SSI were mailed to 43 patients with PSS and 50 patients with RA, who were asked to complete these contemporaneously as well as repeating the process 1 month later. PSS patients also completed a series of VASs comprising fatigue and sicca domains of the SSI.


Surveys were returned from 35 PSS patients and 35 RA patients. All domains of the long- and short-form PROFAD-SSI showed strong correlations (Spearman rho between 0.779 and 0.996, P < 0.01). Factor analysis generally confirmed the previously validated domain structure with Cronbach's alpha = 0.99. The PROFAD-SF somatic fatigue domain correlated more strongly with a fatigue VAS than did the mental fatigue domain. The SSI-SF domain scores correlated with equivalent VAS scores.


The long- and short-form PROFAD-SSI questionnaires correlate closely suggesting that the PROFAD-SF is valid as an outcome tool. Preliminary data also suggest that an even briefer form with compression of the domains into single VAS is also feasible.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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