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Womens Health (Lond). 2008 Jul;4(4):383-97. doi: 10.2217/17455057.4.4.383.

Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease.

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University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the infection and inflammation of the female upper genital tract, is a common cause of infertility, chronic pain and ectopic pregnancy. Diagnosis and management are challenging, largely resulting from varying signs and symptoms and a polymicrobial etiology that is not fully delineated. Owing to the potential for serious sequelae, a low threshold for diagnosis and treatment is recommended. As PID has a multimicrobial etiology, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydial trachomatis and anaerobic and mycoplasmal bacteria, treatment of PID should consist of a broad spectrum antibiotic regimen. Recent treatment trials have focused on shorter duration regimens, such as azithromycin, and monotherapies including ofloxacin, but data are sparse. Research comparing sequelae development by differing antimicrobial regimens is extremely limited, but will ultimately shape future treatment guidelines.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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