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Int J Psychiatry Med. 2008;38(3):373-89.

Role of nicotine gum and pretreatment depressive symptoms in smoking cessation: twelve-month results of a randomized placebo controlled trial.

Author information

1
Harvard Medical School & Harvard School of Dental Medicine, MA 02115, USA. taru_kinnunen@hms.harvard.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim was to investigate the role of nicotine gum and pretreatment depressive symptoms in long-term smoking cessation.

METHODS:

12-month follow-up of 608 participants within a randomized, controlled trial was conducted. Participants received brief counseling plus nicotine or placebo treatment. Based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale pre-treatment score (> or =16), 32% of the participants were classified as depressed at baseline.

RESULTS:

At the 12-month follow-up the non-depressed participants with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were most successful (20.1%), while the depressed ones with placebo were least successful (5.7%) (p = .004). However, the depressed participants with NRT (15.1%) were not significantly less successful than the non-depressed ones with NRT (20.1%, p = .23). Survival analysis showed significant depression (p = .01) and treatment effects (p = < .001) on the abstinence. Further, when adjusted for marital status and education, the treatment effect remained significant (p < .001), whereas the depression effect became non-significant (p = .08).

CONCLUSIONS:

NRT improved cessation both among the depressed and non-depressed. To understand discrepancies in literature reporting depression and smoking cessation outcome, the pharmacological treatment modality and social-demographic variables should be examined as additional variables.

PMID:
19069579
DOI:
10.2190/PM.38.3.k
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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