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Curr Probl Cardiol. 2009 Jan;34(1):9-43. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2008.09.002.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia from bedside to bench and beyond.


Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a primary electrical myocardial disease characterized by exercise- and stress-related ventricular tachycardia manifested as syncope and sudden death. The disease has a heterogeneous genetic basis, with mutations in the cardiac Ryanodine Receptor channel (RyR2) gene accounting for an autosomal-dominant form (CPVT1) in approximately 50% and mutations in the cardiac calsequestrin gene (CASQ2) accounting for an autosomal-recessive form (CPVT2) in up to 2% of CPVT cases. Both RyR2 and calsequestrin are important participants in the cardiac cellular calcium homeostasis. We review the physiology of the cardiac calcium homeostasis, including the cardiac excitation contraction coupling and myocyte calcium cycling. The pathophysiology of cardiac arrhythmias related to myocyte calcium handling and the effects of different modulators are discussed. The putative derangements in myocyte calcium homeostasis responsible for CPVT, as well as the clinical manifestations and therapeutic options available, are described.

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