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Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Apr;52(4):527-9. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21851.

Fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease associated with a perforin gene variant.

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Department of Pediatric Immunology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital/University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


A patient with previously unrecognized X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) died of multi-organ failure, secondary to ongoing infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Post mortem histological investigations were compatible with X-CGD, and a CYBB gene mutation was confirmed. No homozygous mutations in the genes encoding perforin (PRF1), MUNC 13-4 or syntaxin-11 (STX11) were found; however, there was a heterozygous alteration c.1471G>A in the PRF1 gene causing a p.Asp491Asn substitution. Although this substitution has not been reported to cause primary or secondary HLH, we speculate that it may have made the patient more susceptible for HLH under the circumstances of ongoing infection associated with X-CGD.

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