Format

Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Evol Biol. 2008 Dec 3;8:328. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-328.

Module evolution and substrate specificity of fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases involved in siderophore biosynthesis.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Pathology & Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. keb45@cornell.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Most filamentous ascomycete fungi produce high affinity iron chelators called siderophores, biosynthesized nonribosomally by multimodular adenylating enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). While genes encoding the majority of NRPSs are intermittently distributed across the fungal kingdom, those encoding ferrichrome synthetase NRPSs, responsible for biosynthesis of ferrichrome siderophores, are conserved, which offers an opportunity to trace their evolution and the genesis of their multimodular domain architecture. Furthermore, since the chemistry of many ferrichromes is known, the biochemical and structural 'rules' guiding NRPS substrate choice can be addressed using protein structural modeling and evolutionary approaches.

RESULTS:

A search of forty-nine complete fungal genome sequences revealed that, with the exception of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, none of the yeast, chytrid, or zygomycete genomes contained a candidate ferrichrome synthetase. In contrast, all filamentous ascomycetes queried contained at least one, while presence and numbers in basidiomycetes varied. Genes encoding ferrichrome synthetases were monophyletic when analyzed with other NRPSs. Phylogenetic analyses provided support for an ancestral duplication event resulting in two main lineages. They also supported the proposed hypothesis that ferrichrome synthetases derive from an ancestral hexamodular gene, likely created by tandem duplication of complete NRPS modules. Recurrent losses of individual domains or complete modules from this ancestral gene best explain the diversity of extant domain architectures observed. Key residues and regions in the adenylation domain pocket involved in substrate choice and for binding the amino and carboxy termini of the substrate were identified.

CONCLUSION:

Iron-chelating ferrichrome synthetases appear restricted to fission yeast, filamentous ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes and fall into two main lineages. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that loss of domains or modules led to evolution of iterative biosynthetic mechanisms that allow flexibility in biosynthesis of the ferrichrome product. The 10 amino acid NRPS code, proposed earlier, failed when we tried to infer substrate preference. Instead, our analyses point to several regions of the binding pocket important in substrate choice and suggest that two positions of the code are involved in substrate anchoring, not substrate choice.

PMID:
19055762
PMCID:
PMC2644324
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2148-8-328
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center