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Clin Genet. 2009 Feb;75(2):185-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2008.01100.x. Epub 2008 Nov 27.

Multiple granular cell tumors are an associated feature of LEOPARD syndrome caused by mutation in PTPN11.

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Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.


We report a patient with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of LEOPARD syndrome (LS) associated with multiple granular cell tumors (MGCT). Bidirectional sequencing of exons 7, 12, and 13 of the PTPN11 gene revealed the T468M missense mutation in exon 12. This mutation has been previously reported in patients with LS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MGCT associated with molecularly characterized LS and provides the first molecular evidence linking granular cell tumors (GCT) to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. We propose that MGCT can be associated with LS. Analysis of GCT from this case tested negatively for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the PTPN11 and NF1 loci and did not show deletions of the PTEN gene. The absence of LOH of PTPN11 supports published functional data that T468M is a dominant-negative mutation.

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