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Proteomics. 2009 Jan;9(1):7-19. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200701163.

Proteomic analysis of Aspergillus nidulans cultured under hypoxic conditions.

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Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.


The fungus Aspergillus nidulans reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate ATP under hypoxic conditions in a mechanism called ammonia fermentation (Takasaki, K. et al.. J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279, 12414-12420). To elucidate the mechanism, the fungus was cultured under normoxic and hypoxic (ammonia fermenting) conditions, intracellular proteins were resolved by 2-DE, and 332 protein spots were identified using MALDI MS after tryptic digestion. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases that play key roles in oxidizing ethanol were produced at the basal level under hypoxic conditions but were obviously provoked by ethanol under normoxic conditions. Enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, as well as the tricarboxylic and glyoxylate cycles, were downregulated. These results indicate that the mechanism of fungal energy conservation is altered under hypoxic conditions. The results also showed that proteins in the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the metabolism of both nucleotide and thiamine were upregulated under hypoxic conditions. Levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine, deamination products of guanine and adenine were increased in DNA from hypoxic cells, indicating an association between hypoxia and intracellular DNA base damage. This study is the first proteomic comparison of the hypoxic responses of A. nidulans.

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