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Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Feb 15;81(3):457-64. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvn335. Epub 2008 Dec 1.

Oxidative stress and left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction.

Author information

1
Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-8511, Japan. hori-ma@mc.pref.osaka.jp

Abstract

In acute myocardial infarction (MI), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the ischaemic myocardium especially after reperfusion. ROS directly injure the cell membrane and cause cell death. However, ROS also stimulate signal transduction to elaborate inflammatory cytokines, e.g. tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6, in the ischaemic region and surrounding myocardium as a host reaction. Inflammatory cytokines also regulate cell survival and cell death in the chain reaction with ROS. Both ROS and inflammatory cytokines are cardiodepressant mainly due to impairment of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Inflammatory cytokines stimulate apoptosis through a TNF-alpha receptor/caspase pathway, whereas Ca(2+) overload induced by extensive ROS generation causes necrosis through enhanced permeability of the mitochondrial membrane (mitochondrial permeability transition). Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) is an ROS-sensitive, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that is activated by many stress signals and can activate nuclear factor kappaB and other transcription factors. ASK1-deficient mice demonstrate that the ROS/ASK1 pathway is involved in necrotic as well as apoptotic cell death, indicating that ASK1 may be a therapeutic target to reduce left ventricular (LV) remodelling after MI. ROS and inflammatory cytokines activate matrix metalloproteinases which degrade extracellular matrix, causing a slippage of myofibrils and hence LV dilatation. Consequently, collagen deposition is increased and tissue repair is enhanced with myocardial fibrosis and angiogenesis. Since the extent of LV remodelling is a major predictor of prognosis of the patients with MI, the therapeutic approach to attenuating LV remodelling is critically important.

PMID:
19047340
DOI:
10.1093/cvr/cvn335
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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