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J Physiol. 2009 Feb 1;587(3):655-68. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.164947. Epub 2008 Dec 1.

Up-regulation of the peroxiredoxin-6 related metabolism of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle of mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

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Department of Physiology, Charité-Campus Benjamin Franklin, Arnimallee 22, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany.


Although neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a substantial role in skeletal muscle physiology, nNOS-knockout mice manifest an only mild phenotypic malfunction in this tissue. To identify proteins that might be involved in adaptive responses in skeletal muscle of knockout mice lacking nNOS, 2D-PAGE with silver-staining and subsequent tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed using extracts of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) derived from nNOS-knockout mice in comparison to C57Bl/6 control mice. Six proteins were significantly (P < or = 0.05) more highly expressed in EDL of nNOS-knockout mice than in that of C57 control mice, all of which are involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These included prohibitin (2.0-fold increase), peroxiredoxin-3 (1.9-fold increase), Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD; 1.9-fold increase), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSP25; 1.7-fold increase) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (2.6-fold increase). A significantly higher expression (4.1-fold increase) and a pI shift from 6.5 to 5.9 of peroxiredoxin-6 in the EDL of nNOS-knockout mice were confirmed by quantitative immunoblotting. The concentrations of the mRNA encoding five of these proteins (the exception being prohibitin) were likewise significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher in the EDL of nNOS-knockout mice. A higher intrinsic hydrogen peroxidase activity (P < or = 0.05) was demonstrated in EDL of nNOS-knockout mice than C57 control mice, which was related to the presence of peroxiredoxin-6. The treatment of mice with the chemical NOS inhibitor L-NAME for 3 days induced a significant 3.4-fold up-regulation of peroxiredoxin-6 in the EDL of C57 control mice (P < or = 0.05), but did not alter its expression in EDL of nNOS-knockout mice. ESR spectrometry demonstrated the levels of superoxide to be 2.5-times higher (P < or = 0.05) in EDL of nNOS-knockout mice than in C57 control mice while an in vitro assay based on the emission of 2,7-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence disclosed the concentration of ROS to be similar in both strains of mice. We suggest that the up-regulation of proteins that are implicated in the metabolism of ROS, particularly of peroxiredoxin-6, within skeletal muscles of nNOS-knockout mice functionally compensates for the absence of nNOS in scavenging of superoxide.

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