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Cell Microbiol. 2009 Mar;11(3):475-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2008.01268.x. Epub 2008 Dec 11.

Regulation of Salmonella-induced membrane ruffling by SipA differs in strains lacking other effectors.

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Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.


The Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) type three secretion system (TTSS) is essential for Salmonella invasion of host cells through its triggering of actin-dependent membrane ruffles. The SPI-1 effectors SipA, SopE, SopE2 and SopB all have actin regulating activities and contribute to invasion. The precise role of actin regulation by SipA in Salmonella invasion remains controversial since divergent data have been presented regarding the relationship between SipA and membrane ruffling. We hypothesized that the contribution of SipA to membrane ruffling and invasion might vary between Salmonella strains. We compared the effects of SipA deletion on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) strains that possess or lack SopE. Loss of SipA reduced invasion in the early stages of infection by SopE(+) and SopE(-) strains but the number of membrane ruffles elicited was unaffected. Salmonella strains lacking both SipA and SopE induced ruffles with very different morphology from those induced by wild-type strains or ones lacking single effectors, including the presence of highly dynamic finger-like protrusions and numerous filopodia. A similar phenotype was found for sipA(-)sopE(-), sipA(-)sopE2(-) and sipA(-)sopB(-) mutants. Thus, SipA plays a more prominent role in induction of invasion-competent membrane ruffles by Salmonella lacking a full complement of SPI-1 effectors.

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