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Rev Sci Instrum. 2008 Oct;79(10):10E925. doi: 10.1063/1.2966457.

Flat field anomalies in an x-ray charge coupled device camera measured using a Manson x-ray source.

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National Security Technologies, P.O. Box 2710, Livermore, California 94550, USA. haughmj@nv.doe gov


The static x-ray imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the x rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The charge coupled device (CCD) chip is an x-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 microm square pixels, and 15 microm thick. A multianode Manson x-ray source, operating up to 10 kV and 10 W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/DeltaE approximately = 10. The x-ray beam intensity was measured using an x-ray photodiode that has an accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The x-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within +/-1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at ten energy bands ranging from 930 to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an x-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

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