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Chem Biol Interact. 2009 Mar 16;178(1-3):242-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.10.055. Epub 2008 Nov 11.

Aldose reductase decreases endoplasmic reticulum stress in ischemic hearts.

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Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, United States.


Aldose reductase (AR) is a multi-functional AKR (AKR1B1) that catalyzes the reduction of a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates with high efficiency. Previous studies from our laboratory show that AR protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, the mechanisms by which it confers cardioprotection remain unknown. Because AR metabolizes aldehydes generated from lipid peroxidation, we tested the hypothesis that it protects against ischemic injury by preventing ER stress induced by excessive accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in the ischemic heart. In cell culture experiments, exposure to model lipid peroxidation aldehydes-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl phosphatidylcholine (POVPC) or acrolein led to an increase in the phosphorylation of ER stress markers PERK and eIF2-alpha and an increase in ATF3. The reduced metabolite of POVPC 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxyvaleroyl phosphatidylcholine (PHVPC) was unable to stimulate JNK phosphorylation. No increase in phospho-eIF2-alpha, ATF3 or phospho-PERK was observed in cells treated with the reduced HNE metabolite 1,4-dihydroxynonenol (DHN). Lysates prepared from isolated perfused mouse hearts subjected to 15 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion ex vivo showed greater phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2-alpha than hearts subjected to aerobic perfusion alone. Ischemia-induced increases in phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2-alpha were diminished in the hearts of cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic mice overexpressing the AR transgene. These observations support the notion that by removing aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation, AR decreases ischemia-reperfusion injury by diminishing ER stress.

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