Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Res. 2008 Dec;18(12):1220-9. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.310.

The role of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor in acute intestinal inflammation.

Author information

Department of Pathology (D06), Bosch Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.


An imbalance of mucosal pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GM-CSF influences the development of hemopoietic cells. The precise role of GM-CSF in IBD remains to be elucidated. GM-CSF gene knockout (GM-CSF(-/-)) and wild-type (Wt) mice were challenged with 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days. The ensued clinical and pathological changes, macrophage infiltration, colonic cytokine production, and bacterial counts were examined. DSS-treated GM-CSF(-/-) mice developed more severe acute colitis than DSS-treated Wt mice, reflected by a greater body weight loss, more rectal bleeding, and aggravated histopathological changes. More infiltrating macrophages were observed in GM-CSF(-/-), compared with Wt mice following DSS challenge, correlating with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. The levels of colonic IL-17 and TNF-alpha were increased significantly in GM-CSF(-/-) mice, but not in Wt mice, following DSS administration. The level of IL-6 was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the colon of GM-CSF(-/-) and Wt mice, respectively, following DSS challenge. No significant changes in IL-4 and IFN-gamma were detected in Wt and GM-CSF(-/-) mice following DSS treatment. The bacteria recovery from colon was increased about 15- and 5-fold, respectively, in Wt mice and GM-CSF(-/-) mice following DSS challenge. These results suggest that GM-CSF(-/-) mice are more susceptible to acute DSS-induced colitis, possibly because of an impaired gut innate immune response as a result of diminished GM-CSF.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center