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Res Microbiol. 2009 Jan-Feb;160(1):57-62. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2008.10.008. Epub 2008 Nov 5.

Determination of relationships among non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains from housekeeping gene sequences and ribotype patterns.

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Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar 751023, India.


Sequencing of three housekeeping genes, mdh, dnaE and recA, and ribotyping for seven non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from different geographic sources indicate a phylogenetic relationship among the strains. Results of MLST and ribotyping indicate a clear difference between three toxigenic strains (N16961, O395, and 569B) and three non-toxigenic strains from India (GS1, GS2, and GW87) and one Guam strain (X392), the latter of which were similar in both MLST and ribotyping, while two other non-toxigenic strains from the USA and India (2740-80 and OR69) appeared to be more closely related to toxigenic strains than to non-toxigenic strains, although this was not supported by ribotyping. These results provide clues to the emergence of toxigenic strains from a non-toxigenic progenitor by acquisition of virulence gene clusters. Results of split decomposition analysis suggest that widespread recombination occurs among the three housekeeping genes and that recombination plays an important role in the emergence of toxigenic strains of V. cholerae O1.

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