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Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008 Dec;37(4):845-58, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2008.09.005.

Extraesophageal GERD.

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Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1660 TVC, Nashville, TN 37232-5280, USA.


The manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been classified into either esophageal or extraesophageal syndromes. Cough, reflux laryngitis, and asthma have been classified as extraesophageal syndromes, whereas reflux chest pain has been classified as a symptomatic syndrome of GERD. In extraesophageal syndromes, patients usually do not display the classic symptoms of reflux, such as heartburn and regurgitation. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and pH monitoring, when used to diagnose reflux in patients with symptoms not classic for GERD, have proved to have poor sensitivity and are often not diagnostically helpful. In contrast, an empiric trial of proton pump inhibitors is a well-established, cost-effective tool.

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