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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Dec;37(4):811-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2008.08.005.

Brain regulation of appetite and satiety.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Interest in the control of feeding has increased as a result of the obesity epidemic and rising incidence of metabolic diseases. The brain detects alterations in energy stores and triggers metabolic and behavioral responses designed to maintain energy balance. Energy homeostasis is controlled mainly by neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and brainstem, whereas reward and motivation aspects of eating behavior are controlled by neurons in limbic regions and the cerebral cortex. This article provides an integrated perspective on how metabolic signals emanating from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, and other peripheral organs target the brain to regulate feeding, energy expenditure, and hormones. The pathogenesis and treatment of obesity and abnormalities of glucose and lipid metabolism are discussed.

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