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Prog Retin Eye Res. 2009 Jan;28(1):1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2008.10.001. Epub 2008 Nov 6.

Molecular pathology of age-related macular degeneration.

Author information

1
Immunopathology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-1857, USA.

Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain largely unclear, a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors is thought to exist. AMD pathology is characterized by degeneration involving the retinal photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane, as well as, in some cases, alterations in choroidal capillaries. Recent research on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of AMD brings to light several basic molecular pathways and pathophysiological processes that might mediate AMD risk, progression, and/or response to therapy. This review summarizes, in detail, the molecular pathological findings in both humans and animal models, including genetic variations in CFH, CX3CR1, and ARMS2/HtrA1, as well as the role of numerous molecules implicated in inflammation, apoptosis, cholesterol trafficking, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress.

PMID:
19026761
PMCID:
PMC2715284
DOI:
10.1016/j.preteyeres.2008.10.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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