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J Math Biol. 2009 Jun;58(6):939-78. doi: 10.1007/s00285-008-0236-5. Epub 2008 Nov 21.

Multilocus selection in subdivided populations I. Convergence properties for weak or strong migration.

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Department of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.


The dynamics and equilibrium structure of a deterministic population-genetic model of migration and selection acting on multiple multiallelic loci is studied. A large population of diploid individuals is distributed over finitely many demes connected by migration. Generations are discrete and nonoverlapping, migration is irreducible and aperiodic, all pairwise recombination rates are positive, and selection may vary across demes. It is proved that, in the absence of selection, all trajectories converge at a geometric rate to a manifold on which global linkage equilibrium holds and allele frequencies are identical across demes. Various limiting cases are derived in which one or more of the three evolutionary forces, selection, migration, and recombination, are weak relative to the others. Two are particularly interesting. If migration and recombination are strong relative to selection, the dynamics can be conceived as a perturbation of the so-called weak-selection limit, a simple dynamical system for suitably averaged allele frequencies. Under nondegeneracy assumptions on this weak-selection limit which are generic, every equilibrium of the full dynamics is a perturbation of an equilibrium of the weak-selection limit and has the same stability properties. The number of equilibria is the same in both systems, equilibria in the full (perturbed) system are in quasi-linkage equilibrium, and differences among allele frequencies across demes are small. If migration is weak relative to recombination and epistasis is also weak, then every equilibrium is a perturbation of an equilibrium of the corresponding system without migration, has the same stability properties, and is in quasi-linkage equilibrium. In both cases, every trajectory converges to an equilibrium, thus no cycling or complicated dynamics can occur.

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