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Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009 Aug;82(8):961-8. doi: 10.1007/s00420-008-0385-2. Epub 2008 Nov 20.

Determinants of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in South Korean children.

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Biomedical Research Group, Hanyang Brain Korea 21, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



This study was conducted to investigate the dominant sources of the urinary pyrene metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), in South Korean children.


Urine samples were collected from 102 non-smoking children (aged 10-14). Urinary 1-OHPG was assayed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, following immuno-affinity purification using monoclonal antibody 8E11. Urinary cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, was measured by GC/MS. Information on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, diet, fuel type for heating home, and other possible sources of PAH exposure was collected by self-administered questionnaires.


Mean (+/-SE) 1-OHPG levels were 1.64 (+/-0.06) ng/ml (range 0.04-3.27 ng/ml). Two multiple linear regression analyses (differing in how ETS was approximated: by parental smoking or urinary cotinine) revealed a positive association between urinary 1-OHPG levels and parental smoking at home (P = 0.007), log urinary cotinine (P = 0.165), frequent grilled (shell)fish consumption (P = 0.061), and living in a commercial/other zone (P = 0.007) versus a residential or industrial zone. No consistent associations were found between 1-OHPG and the child's sex, grilled meat consumption, or fuels used to heat the home.


These results support that ETS, frequent grilled fish consumption, and the ambient environment are important predictors of urinary 1-OHPG levels in South Korean children.

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