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J Clin Periodontol. 2009 Jan;36(1):3-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01338.x. Epub 2008 Oct 30.

Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD44 and CD133 in periodontal disease and diabetes: an immunohistochemical study.

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Histology-Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Marche Polytechnic University, Torrette-Ancona, Italy.



The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between expression of angiogenic and regeneration markers and periodontal disease in subjects with/without diabetes mellitus.


Immunohistochemical detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD44 and CD133 was performed in 16 samples each of (1) healthy gingiva from non-diabetic subjects (controls), (2) gingiva from non-diabetic subjects with periodontitis, (3) gingiva from subjects with type 1 diabetes and periodontitis, (4) gingiva from subjects with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis.


Diseased gingivae from patients with diabetes and periodontitis had greater clinical measures of periodontal disease than those with periodontitis only. VEGF expression was significantly enhanced in epithelial and endothelial cells from patients with periodontitis compared with controls (p<0.05). Epithelial CD44 expression was strong in all groups, while CD44 was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) in connective tissue cells from both diabetic groups. Epithelial and endothelial CD133 expression was comparable in all patients except those with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis, where it was not detected. Stromal CD133 expression was significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis and was increased in periodontitis patients (p<0.05).


The involvement and high expression of VEGF, CD44 and CD133 in periodontal disease may predict a greater regeneration capacity of gingival tissue.

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