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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009 Feb;119(2):137-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01283.x. Epub 2008 Nov 11.

Depressive symptoms predispose females to metabolic syndrome: a 7-year follow-up study.

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Unit of Family Practice, Central Hospital of Middle Finland, Jyväskylä, Finland.



To evaluate the risk for developing metabolic syndrome when having depressive symptoms.


The prevalence of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome at baseline, and after a 7-year follow-up as measured with Beck depression inventory (BDI), and using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program--Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in a middle-aged population-based sample (n = 1294).


The logistic regression analysis showed a 2.5-fold risk (95% CI: 1.2-5.2) for the females with depressive symptoms (BDI >or=10) at baseline to have MetS at the end of the follow-up. The risk was highest in the subgroup with more melancholic symptoms evaluated with a summary score of the melancholic items in BDI (OR 6.81, 95% CI: 2.09-22.20). In men, there was no risk difference.


The higher risks for MetS in females with depressive symptoms at baseline suggest that depression may be an important predisposing factor for the development of MetS.

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