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Pharm Res. 1991 Jan;8(1):60-4.

Enhanced bioavailability of subcutaneously injected insulin by pretreatment with ointment containing protease inhibitors.

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Department of Pharmacy, Kagawa Medical School, Japan.


The present study was undertaken to develop an ointment preparation containing a protease inhibitor for stabilizing subcutaneously injected insulin. The ointment containing the protease inhibitor, gabexate mesilate or nafamostat mesilate, was applied to the skin around the insulin injection site. Three results were obtained. First, gabexate and nafamostat inhibited insulin degradation in subcutaneous tissue homogenates in vitro. Second, after application of gabexate or nafamostat ointment, an appreciable amount of gabexate or nafamostat appeared in the subcutaneous tissue of rats or hairless mice and their concentrations were comparable to those seen in the in vitro experiment. Third, insulin degradation at the subcutaneous injection site in the rat was depressed after pretreatment with gabexate or nafamostat ointment. Pretreatment with gabexate or nafamostat ointment increased the plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels and the hypoglycermic effect of insulin in healthy volunteers. These results indicate that gabexate or nafamostat ointments stabilize subcutaneously injected insulin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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