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Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D423-30. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn881. Epub 2008 Nov 9.

Influenza sequence and epitope database.

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Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, College of Science & Technology, Korea University, Chungnam, Korea.


Influenza epidemics arise through the acquisition of viral genetic changes to overcome immunity from previous infections. An increasing number of complete genomes of influenza viruses have been sequenced in Asia in recent years. Knowledge about the genomes of the seasonal influenza viruses from different countries in Asia is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the emergence, migration and evolution of strains. In order to make full use of the wealth of information from such data, we have developed an integrated user friendly relational database, Influenza Sequence and Epitope Database (ISED), that catalogs the influenza sequence and epitope information obtained in Asia. ISED currently hosts a total of 13,020 influenza A and 2984 influenza B virus sequence data collected in 17 countries including 9 Asian countries, and a total of approximately 545 amantadine-resistant influenza virus sequences collected in Korea. ISED provides users with prebuilt application tools to analyze sequence alignment and different patterns and allows users to visualize epitope-matching structures, which is freely accessible at and

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