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Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Aug;35(2):128-40. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2008.10.003. Epub 2008 Oct 28.

Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.


Although a battery of neuropsychological tests is often used in making a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), definitive diagnosis still relies on pathological evaluation at autopsy. The identification of AD biomarkers may allow for a less invasive and more accurate diagnosis as well as serve as a predictor of future disease progression and treatment response. Importantly, biomarkers may also allow for the identification of individuals who are already developing the underlying pathology of AD such as plaques and tangles yet who are not yet demented, i.e. "preclinical" AD. Attempts to identify biomarkers have included fluid and imaging studies, with a number of candidate markers showing significant potential. More recently, better reagent availability and novel methods of assessment have further spurred the search for biomarkers of AD. This review will discuss promising fluid and imaging markers to date.

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